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Surgical Urology and Nephrology Department was established in 1962 by professor Solomon D. Goligorskhii, and later converted into a urology course under the leadership of Associate Professor Vladimir C. Punga (1965-1971). Starting with 1971, the course has been again reorganized into a department led until 1974 by Associate Professor Ana Axelrod. From 1974 to 2001, the department was headed by Associate Professor Mihai Bîrsan, PhD in medical sciences, Doctor Emeritus of the Republic of Moldova, President of the Society of Urologists of the Republic of Moldova.

Since 2001, Adrian Tănase, Doctor Habilitated in medical sciences, university professor, has served as the head of Surgical Urology and Nephrology Department.

The following renowned scientsists in the field of urology and nephrology from the Republic of Moldova have worked at the department: Nicolae Nacu, PhD in medical sciences, Naum Bogomolnîi, Doctor Habilitated in medical sciences, Mihail Chiroşca, PhD in medical sciences, Ivan Mastica, PhD in medical sciences, A.Căţîf, Doctor Habilitated in medical sciences, Afanasie Tetradov, PhD in medical sciences, Boris Sasu, PhD in medical sciences, Arcadie Sapojnicov, PhD in medical sciences, etc.

Department employees are the ones who have implemented most of the diagnostic and treatment methods used in the field of local urology and nephrology, including the first hemodialysis in renal failure (1962), peritoneal dialysis (1963), hemocarboperfusion (1981), kidney transplantation (1982), lithotripsy extracorporeal procedure, various urinary tract surgeries, including plastic and reconstructive interventions. In recent years, a number of modern methods of endourological treatment have been applied, which are widely used in urological practice - TUR-U, TUR-P, TUR-V, ureteroscopy and ureterolitoextraction, ultrasound-guided percutaneous nephrostomy technique, ultrasound-guided renal cyst puncture, cystectomy laparoscopic surgery. Other modern methods such as NLP, flexible ureteroscopy, laparoscopic nephrectomy, etc., will be implemented in the near future. 

Surgical Urology and Nephrology Department has essentially contributed to the training of local staff through graduate and postgraduate specialization in urology, surgical nephrology, andrology, sexual medicine. The department initiated the founding of the Society of Urologists of the Republic of Moldova, a non-governmental organization that united urologists and nephrologists with a view to organizing national and international scientific events.